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For nuclear weapons reduction, a way to verify without revealing

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
MIT researchers have found a new way of verifying nuclear weapons reduction agreements without revealing secret information, using a physical cryptographic key and nuclear resonant phenomena.

Researchers achieve HD video streaming at 10,000 times lower power

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
Engineers at the University of Washington have developed a new HD video streaming method that doesn't need to be plugged in. Their prototype skips power-hungry components and has something else, like a smartphone, process the video instead.

Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
UConn researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Atoms may hum a tune from grand cosmic symphony

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. Their work, which forges new connections between atomic physics and the sudden expansion of the early universe, will be published in Physical Review X and highlighted by Physics.

Smartphone app successfully promotes child car seat safety

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
A smartphone app designed to promote proper child car seat use among parents proved effective in a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

British pilots score high on burnout scale -- but still perform well

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
A study among British airline pilots shows that 20 percent of them have scores on a burnout scale that are comparable to those of people that are under burnout treatment. Surprisingly, the same study shows that only one of the 1147 pilots that participated, did not meet the performance standards at the regular flight simulator training. The authors argue that airline companies need to offer better support and facilities to their pilots to help them cope with their stressful jobs.

Young victims of cyberbullying twice as likely to attempt suicide and self-harm

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
New research suggests that it is not just the victims of cyberbullying that are more vulnerable to suicidal behaviours, but the perpetrators themselves are also at higher risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviours.

More students report carrying guns in Chicago than New York or Los Angeles

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
More students report carrying guns in Chicago than in New York or Los Angeles, a new Northwestern Medicine study shows. The findings provide historical background for Chicago's 2016 spike in gun violence, which occurred mostly among youth and young adults.

Chip-based blood test for multiple myeloma could make bone biopsies a relic of the past

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
A University of Kansas research effort has resulted in a low-cost, reliable blood test that uses a small plastic chip about the size of a credit card that can deliver the same diagnostic information as a bone biopsy -- but using a simple blood draw instead.

Landmark study links tumor evolution to prostate cancer severity

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
Findings from Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE) researchers and their collaborators, published today in Cell, show that the aggressiveness of an individual prostate cancer can be accurately assessed by looking at how that tumor has evolved. This information can be used to determine what type and how much treatment should be given to each patient, or if any is needed at all.

Blowfly uses saliva to keep cool

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
On warm days the Oriental latrine blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala) keeps cool by moving a droplet of saliva repeatedly in and out of its buccal apparatus, or mouth, and then swallowing it.

Drug combination targeting HSP90 and BRAF is safe and effective in advanced melanoma

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
A team of researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have been working to learn more about how melanoma becomes resistant to BRAF inhibitors in order to develop new treatment strategies. They tested whether a drug targeting heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) combined with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib could be a safe and potentially effective strategy to treat patients with melanoma. Their study was published online ahead of print in Clinical Cancer Research.

Energy conversion: Optical 'overtones' for solar cells

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
NIM scientists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have found a new effect regarding the optical excitation of charge carriers in a solar semiconductor. It could facilitate the utilization of infrared light, which is normally lost in solar devices.

Two Hubble views of the same stellar nursery

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images compare two diverse views of the roiling heart of a vast stellar nursery, known as the Lagoon Nebula. The images, one taken in visible and the other in infrared light, celebrate Hubble's 28th anniversary in space.

Hubble celebrates 28th anniversary with a trip through the Lagoon Nebula

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
This colorful cloud of glowing interstellar gas is just a tiny part of the Lagoon Nebula, a vast stellar nursery. This nebula is a region full of intense activity, with fierce winds from hot stars, swirling chimneys of gas, and energetic star formation all embedded within a hazy labyrinth of gas and dust. Hubble used both its optical and infrared instruments to study the nebula, which was observed to celebrate Hubble's 28th anniversary.

GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
Getting the results of a cancer biopsy can take up to two weeks. What if it could happen in 10 minutes? In two new papers, a team of chemists and engineers from Michigan Technological University lay the groundwork for cancer detection and diagnostics based on a fluorescent GLUT5 probe. Documented in the new research, a cancer's type and malignancy changes the GLUT5 activity in a cell, creating a detectable 'fingerprint' of cancer.

'Rip Van Winkle' plants hide underground for up to 20 years

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
Scores of plant species are capable of living dormant under the soil for up to 20 years, enabling them to survive through difficult times, a new study has found.

UPV/EHU researchers account for the complex symptoms of Angelman syndrome

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
A research group at the Faculty of Science and Technology of the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country has managed to reliably identify the changes in the proteins altered by the UBE3A enzyme, responsible for Angelman syndrome. This disease causes problems in intellectual and motor development, epilepsy, difficulties in communication, and very few hours of sleep. Funding provided by the Angelman Syndrome Association has been a key factor in being able to complete the research.

Study: Judges as susceptible to gender bias as laypeople -- and sometimes more so

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
A new study of trial court judges suggests these arbiters of the law sometimes let their personal ideas about gender roles influence their decision-making. The findings, which are part of a broader study of judicial behavior, revealed that the judges were just as likely as laypeople to discriminate - in ways that harmed both men and women - in decisions involving child custody or workplace discrimination cases related to family caregiving duties.

Study may explain why some triple-negative breast cancers are resistant to chemotherapy

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/18/2018 - 22:00
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of the disease accounting for 12 to 18 percent of breast cancers. It is a scary diagnosis, and even though chemotherapy can be effective as standard-of-care, many patients become resistant to treatment. A team at The University of Texas MD Anderson led a study which may explain how resistance evolves over time, and potentially which patients could benefit from chemotherapy.

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