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Quantum internet: A vision for the road ahead

ScienceNOW Daily News Feed - Jue, 10/18/2018 - 11:37

The internet—a vast network that enables simultaneous long-range classical communication—has had a revolutionary impact on our world. The vision of a quantum internet is to fundamentally enhance internet technology by enabling quantum communication between any two points on Earth. Such a quantum internet may operate in parallel to the internet that we have today and connect quantum processors in order to achieve capabilities that are provably impossible by using only classical means. Here, we propose stages of development toward a full-blown quantum internet and highlight experimental and theoretical progress needed to attain them.

Relationship of gender differences in preferences to economic development and gender equality

ScienceNOW Daily News Feed - Jue, 10/18/2018 - 11:37

Preferences concerning time, risk, and social interactions systematically shape human behavior and contribute to differential economic and social outcomes between women and men. We present a global investigation of gender differences in six fundamental preferences. Our data consist of measures of willingness to take risks, patience, altruism, positive and negative reciprocity, and trust for 80,000 individuals in 76 representative country samples. Gender differences in preferences were positively related to economic development and gender equality. This finding suggests that greater availability of and gender-equal access to material and social resources favor the manifestation of gender-differentiated preferences across countries.

Tough laws prevent gun deaths

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A major global report confirms gun-related homicides, suicides and accidents are falling in Australia after the introduction of anti-gun laws, and that the effect of such tough laws is similar elsewhere.

Genetic behavior reveals cause of death in poplars essential to ecosystems, industry

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Scientists studying a valuable, but vulnerable, species of poplar have identified the genetic mechanism responsible for the species' inability to resist a pervasive and deadly disease. Their finding, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could lead to more successful hybrid poplar varieties for increased biofuels and forestry production and protect native trees against infection.

Eating leafy greens could help prevent macular degeneration

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A new study has shown that eating vegetable nitrates, found mainly in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, could help reduce your risk of developing early-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

With a microbe-produced toxin, bacteria prove old dogs can learn new tricks

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
In the ongoing chemical battles among bacteria and their microbial neighbors, a new toxin has been uncovered. This unfamiliar toxin behaves in a familiar way. Its actions against other bacteria resemble the mechanisms of cholera, pertussis and diphtheria toxins. Some bacteria deploying this toxin have safeguards against self-poisoning.

$5.1 million grant will fund research to develop a stem cell-based therapy for blinding eye condition

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Scientists at the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and the Stein Eye Institute have been awarded a $5.1 million grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine to advance the development of a novel therapy for blinding retinal conditions.

New fly species found in Indiana may indicate changing climate, says IUPUI researcher

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A new type of blow fly spotted in Indiana points to shifting species populations due to climate change. Researchers at IUPUI have observed the first evidence of Lucilia cuprina in Indiana, an insect previously known to populate southern states from Virginia to California.

Suicide risk in abused teen girls linked to mother-daughter conflict

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
University of Rochester researchers identified a stark correlation between both poor mother-daughter relationships and high degrees of conflict -- with the likelihood of suicidal thoughts.

Cytokine mediates obesity-related factors linked to colorectal cancer

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A new study describes the mechanistic relationship between the cytokine interleukin-1ß, (IL-1ß) and obesity, showing that when IL-1ß levels are increased in obesity, IL-1 receptor signaling activates multiple pathways leading to colon cancer.

For preterm infants, skin-to-skin contact affects

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
For premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), skin-to-skin contact with parents influences levels of hormones related to mother-infant attachment (oxytocin) and stress (cortisol) -- and may increase parents' level of engagement with their infants, reports a study in Advances in Neonatal Care, official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Managing the complexities and risks of HIV and tuberculosis coinfection

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A new study identified a significant association between HIV infection and complexities of treating patients with tuberculosis coinfection.

To track how students ace the LSAT, watch their eyes

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Neuroscientists are tracking eye movements to understand how practicing tough reasoning tests like the LSAT makes students smarter.

Study finds racial disparities in student debt increase after young people leave college

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Racial disparities in student debt between blacks and whites may perpetuate the racial wealth gap according to a study in the online first edition of Sociology of Race and Ethnicity. The study is the first to evaluate how racial disparities in student debt change over one's life course -- from when young people first graduate or leave college in their early 20s to over the next 10 years, as they enter the job market, start families and transition into adulthood.

Social media for medical journals operates in 'wild west,' needs more support to succeed

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
In this first study to examine social media editor roles at medical journals, researchers at Northwestern Medicine found that while medical journals are using social media more to extend the reach of new research, the responsibilities and measures of success for these roles aren't well defined or supported. More support is needed to get the information to the public more efficiently.

3D printers have 'fingerprints,' a discovery that could help trace 3D-printed guns

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Like fingerprints, no 3D printer is exactly the same. That's the takeaway from a new University at Buffalo-led study that describes what's believed to be the first accurate method for tracing a 3D-printed object to the machine it came from.The advancement could help law enforcement and intelligence agencies track the origin of 3D-printed guns, counterfeit products and other goods.

Pushing the (extra cold) frontiers of superconducting science

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Ames Laboratory has developed a method to measure magnetic properties of superconducting and magnetic materials that exhibit unusual quantum behavior at very low temperatures in high magnetic fields.

Genetic breakthrough by CU Denver scientists will aid whitebark pine conservation efforts

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A University of Colorado Denver-led research team for the first time developed reliable genetic markers known as nuclear microsatellites for the whitebark pine, a discovery that could improve the tree's prospects for survival. Whitebark pine, which is declining rapidly nearly range-wide, is currently being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act.

Estimating the feeding habits of corals may offer new insights on resilient reefs

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and colleagues have found that corals living in more productive waters take advantage of the increased food availability. The findings reevaluate scientific understanding of how corals survive and could aid predictions on coral recovery in the face of climate change.

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