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Technique quickly identifies extreme event statistics

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
Engineers at MIT have developed an algorithm that quickly pinpoints the types of extreme events that are likely to occur in a complex system, such as an ocean environment, where waves of varying magnitudes, lengths, and heights can create stress and pressure on a ship or offshore platform. The researchers can simulate the forces and stresses that extreme events -- in the form of waves -- may generate on a particular structure.

Analyzing half a million mouse decisions

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
Mice can be used to study the neural circuits underlying complex decision-making, suggests an analysis of more than 500,000 mouse decisions reported in JNeurosci.

Study finds potential benefits of wildlife-livestock coexistence in East Africa

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
A study of 3,588 square kilometers of privately owned land in central Kenya offers evidence that humans and their livestock can, in the right circumstances, share territory with zebras, giraffes, elephants and other wild mammals -- to the benefit of all.

Don't sweat the sweet stuff

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
Sweet and bitter flavors are identified as soon as they are tasted, according to human neural and behavioral data published in eNeuro. The study provides new insight into how the brain rapidly detects and discriminates between potentially nutritious and toxic substances.

How beetle larvae thrive on carrion

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides buries the cadavers of small animals to use them as a food source for its offspring. However, the carcass is susceptible to microbial decomposition. Researchers from the Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Ecology and the Universities of Mainz and Giessen, Germany, show that the beetles replace harmful microorganisms with their own beneficial gut symbionts, thus turning a carcass into a nursery with a microbial community that even promotes larval growth.

Early sleep loss accelerates Alzheimer's pathology in mice

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
Lack of sleep during adolescence and early adulthood accelerates Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related tau pathology, finds a study of male and female mice published in JNeurosci. These results support the importance of establishing healthy sleep habits in early adult life to help stave off progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

Two degrees decimated Puerto Rico's insect populations

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
While temperatures in the tropical forests of northeastern Puerto Rico have climbed two degrees Celsius since the mid-1970s, the biomass of arthropods - invertebrate animals such as insects, millipedes, and sowbugs - has declined by as much as 60-fold, according to new findings published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

National bans on slapping children linked to less youth violence

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
National bans on parents slapping or spanking their children to punish them for bad behaviour are linked to lower rates of youth violence, reveals an international study published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Global warming will have us crying in what's left of our beer

EurekAlert! - Dom, 10/14/2018 - 22:00
In a study published today in Nature Plants, researchers from the University of California, Irvine and other institutions report that concurrent droughts and heat waves, exacerbated by anthropogenic global warming, will lead to sharp declines in crop yields of barley, beer's main ingredient.

Postpartum depression linked to mother's pain after childbirth

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 10/13/2018 - 22:00
While childbirth pain has been linked to postpartum depression, the culprit may be the pain experienced by the mother following childbirth, rather than during the labor and delivery process, suggests new research presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2018 annual meeting.

Scientists achieve first ever acceleration of electrons in plasma waves

EurekAlert! - Vie, 10/12/2018 - 22:00
An international team of researchers, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has demonstrated a new technique for accelerating electrons to very high energies over short distances.

Fast, accurate estimation of the Earth's magnetic field for natural disaster detection

EurekAlert! - Vie, 10/12/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have applied machine-learning techniques to achieve fast, accurate estimates of local geomagnetic fields using data taken at multiple observation points, potentially allowing detection of changes caused by earthquakes and tsunamis. A deep neural network (DNN) model was developed and trained using existing data; the result is a fast, efficient method for estimating magnetic fields for unprecedentedly early detection of natural disasters. This is vital for developing effective warning systems that might help reduce casualties and widespread damage.

Novel catalyst for high-energy aluminum-air flow batteries

EurekAlert! - Vie, 10/12/2018 - 22:00
A recent study, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has introduced a novel electric vehicle (EV) battery technology that is more energy-efficient than gasoline-powered engines.

Despite crisis patients perceive opioids as superior and expect them for postsurgical pain

EurekAlert! - Vie, 10/12/2018 - 22:00
Even with concerns about addiction, side effects and the other risks of opioids dominating headlines, a study presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2018 annual meeting found people expect to be prescribed opioids and perceive them to be the most effective form of pain relief after surgery. Interestingly, other research presented at the meeting found opioids led to complications such as increased pain, poorer quality of life and dependence following back surgery.

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