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'Tic'-tock

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Scientists in Japan have found a potential marker to identify which people with abnormally fast heartbeats are at high risk of developing heart failure.

Bribing bacteria to play nicely is good for everyone

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Salk Institute researchers report that giving mice dietary iron supplements enabled them to survive a normally lethal bacterial infection and resulted in later generations of those bacteria being less virulent. The approach, which appears in the journal Cell on Aug. 9, 2018, demonstrates in preclinical studies that non-antibiotic-based strategies--such as nutritional interventions--can shift the relationship between the patient and pathogens away from antagonism and toward cooperation.

Tbx6 revealed as crucial to heart and skeleton formation from stem cells

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
In a study of over 50 transcription factors, Tbx6 alone was able to stimulate mesoderm formation in laboratory-grown stem cells, and could cause those stem cells to become cardiovascular or musculoskeletal cells; the University of Tsukuba-led research team found that this essential role of Tbx6 in mesoderm and cardiovascular speci?cation is conserved from lower organisms to mammals. This research report validated a new direct reprogramming-based approach that may enhance future regenerative medicine research.

Drugs in development for cancer may also fight brain diseases, including ALS

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
A class of cancer drugs called PARP inhibitors could be useful for treating and preventing brain disorders, including ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) and some forms of frontotemporal degeneration, by halting the misplacement of specific proteins that affect nerve cells.

Reef corals have endured since 'age of dinosaurs' and may survive global warming

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
The relationship between corals and the micro-algae that enable them to build reefs is considerably older and more diverse than previously assumed, according to an international team of scientists.

Neuroscientists get at the roots of pessimism

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
MIT neuroscientists have shown that stimulating the caudate nucleus can generate negative moods that lead to irrational decision-making. Stimulating the caudate nucleus causes animals to give far more weight to the anticipated drawback of a situation than its potential benefit.

Corals and algae go back further than previously thought, all the way to Jurassic Period

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Algae and corals have been leaning on each other since dinosaurs roamed the earth, much longer than had been previously thought.

Scientists identify genetic marker for gastric cancer prognosis

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Although immunotherapy is seen as a very promising treatment for cancer, currently only 20 to 30 percent of patients respond positively. Being able to identify the people most likely to benefit from the costly therapy is a Holy Grail for oncologists.

Diverse symbionts of reef corals have endured since 'age of dinosaurs'

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Coral-algal partnerships have endured numerous climate change events in their long history, and at least some are likely to survive modern-day global warming as well, suggests an international team of scientists.

Genes drive aging, making normal processes damaging

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Aging in worms mainly results from the direct action of genes and not from random wear and tear/loss of function, and the same is likely to be true in humans.Normal biological processes useful in early life, continue to 'run-on' pointlessly in later life causing age-related diseases. This does not mean that aging is programmed but it is a continuation of developmental growth driven by genetic pathways to the point where these becomes harmful.

Single transplantation of therapeutic macrophages improves rare lung disease in mice

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (herPAP) is a rare disease characterized by the slow build-up of lipo-protein material in the lungs due to the failure of highly specialized cells called macrophages, which usually eat away this material from the pulmonary air-space. On Aug. 9 in the journal Stem Cell Reports, researchers in Germany demonstrate that a single transplantation of murine macrophages into the lungs of mice suffering from herPAP can treat this life-threatening disease.

Nuclear gatekeeper could block undruggable prostate cancer targets

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Blocking nuclear gateways that traffic cancer-promoting molecules to nucleus, could offer a new way to target aggressive cancer.

Evolutionary changes in the human brain may have led to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
The same aspects of relatively recent evolutionary changes that make us prone to bad backs and impacted third molars may have generated long, noncoding stretches of DNA that predispose individuals to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other neuropsychiatric diseases. A study publishing Aug. 9 in the American Journal of Human Genetics identifies an unusually lengthy array of tandem repeats found only within the human version of a gene governing calcium transport in the brain.

Can psychedelic drugs heal?

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Many people think of psychedelics as relics from the hippie generation or something taken by ravers and music festival-goers, but they may one day be used to treat disorders ranging from social anxiety to depression, according to research presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association.

Roles of emotional support animals examined

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Airlines are not the only organizations grappling with the complexities surrounding emotional support animals. Colleges and courts are also questioning the need for these animals and the effects they may have on students and juries, respectively, according to research presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association.

Hybrid catalyst with high enantiomer selectivity

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
A group of Japanese researchers has developed a technology to create a hybrid catalyst from simple-structured, commercially available rhodium and organic catalysts, which reduces chemical waste and produces molecules with high selectivity of an enantiomer, a pair of molecular structures that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. This technology is expected to assist in rapid and low-cost drug synthesis.

Discovery presents treatment hope for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
There is new hope for the treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases following a ground-breaking discovery made by an Australian-Chinese research collaboration.

MRI may facilitate the diagnosis and evaluation of the treatment outcomes of depression

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could identify morphological and functional brain changes of major depressive disorder (MDD). These alterations may potentially serve as MRI biomarkers that are clinically useful for the early diagnosis and evaluation of the treatment outcomes of MDD.

SNS completes full neutron production cycle at record power level

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has reached a new milestone by operating a complete neutron production run cycle at 1.3 megawatts. Achieving the record power level with a remarkable 94 percent accelerator beam availability establishes a new baseline of operation as well as a path to operate reliably at higher powers. Increased power offers researchers the ability to conduct faster scientific analyses using neutrons on more types of materials.

Research brief: New 3D-printed device could help treat spinal cord injuries

EurekAlert! - Mié, 08/08/2018 - 22:00
Engineers and medical researchers at the University of Minnesota have teamed up to create a groundbreaking 3D-printed device that could someday help patients with long-term spinal cord injuries regain some function.

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