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Parents' alcohol use can set the stage for teenage dating violence, study finds

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Having a parent with an alcohol use disorder increases the risk for dating violence among teenagers, according to a study from the University at Buffalo Research Institute on Addictions.

Research predicts increase in inflammatory bowel disease in developing world

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
For the last century, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been a challenge for patients and the medical community in the western world. New research published today in The Lancet by Dr. Gilaad Kaplan shows that countries outside the western world may now be facing the same pattern of increasing IBD rates.

Creation of coherent states in molecules by incoherent electrons

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Coherent states of negative ion resonances in electron-molecule interaction are observed in experiments on e -- H2 and e -- D2 reactions. A forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the ejection of H- ions from H2 in this reaction, whereas the asymmetry in D- from D2 is weaker, but changes direction with electron energy. These results arise from attachment of a single electron to a molecule forming coherent superposition of odd and even parity states of negative ions.

US ocean observation critical to understanding climate change, but lacks long-term nat. planning

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Ocean observing systems are important as they provide information essential for monitoring and forecasting changes in Earth's climate on timescales ranging from days to centuries. A new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine finds that continuity of ocean observations is vital to gain an accurate understanding of the climate, and calls for a decadal, national plan that is adequately resourced and implemented to ensure critical ocean information is available to understand and predict future changes.

Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Rice University researchers employ microfluidic devices to show how and why dispersants are able to break up deposits of asphaltene that hinder the flow of crude oil in wellheads and pipelines.

The perils of business ethics facing the UK's SME jewellery producers comes under scrutiny

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Professor of Sustainability Morven McEachern looks at the ethical world of Birmingham's famous 250-year Jewellery Quarter, home to some 500 business.

NASA sees a new depression form after another fizzled

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
The Northwestern Pacific Ocean generated another tropical depression hours after a different system quickly faded. NASA's Aqua satellite provided a look at Tropical Depression 27W after it developed about 300 miles from Chuuk. Earlier in the day, Tropical Depression 26W dissipated in the South China Sea.

Metacognition training boosts gen chem exam scores

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Students, and people in general, can tend to overestimate their own abilities. But University of Utah research shows that students who overcome this tendency score better on final exams. The boost is strongest for students in the lower 25 percent of the class. By thinking about their thinking, a practice called metacognition, these students raised their final exam scores by 10 percent on average -- a full letter grade.

Prozac in ocean water a possible threat to sea life, PSU study finds

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Oregon shore crabs exhibit risky behavior when they're exposed to the antidepressant Prozac, making it easier for predators to catch them, according to a new study from Portland State University (PSU).

NASA-NOAA satellite sees Typhoon Lan's 50 nautical-mile wide eye

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and captured an image of Typhoon Lan in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and saw a well-organized storm with a clear eye that was 50 nautical miles in diameter.

Global CO2 emissions stalled for the third year in a row

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
The annual assessment of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the JRC and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) confirms that CO2 emissions have stalled for the third year in a row.

Swansea University's physicists develop a new quantum simulation protocol

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
A step closer to understanding quantum mechanics: Swansea University's physicists develop a new quantum simulation protocol.

To vape or not to vape? Probably: Not to vape

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
"There is confusion about whether e-cigarettes are 'safer' than cigarettes because the potential adverse effects of e-cigarettes are only beginning to be studied," said Kesimer, who is also a member of the UNC Marsico Lung Institute. "This study looked at possible biomarkers of harm in the lungs. And our results suggest that in some ways using e-cigarettes could be just as bad as smoking cigarettes."

Audit uncovers concerns about the use of electroconvulsive therapy in England

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be used in England without comprehensive national auditing.

Apixaban -- metabolism, pharmacologic properties and drug interactions

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent direct-acting drugs functioning selectively for one specific clotting factor. Their clinical indications are the prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the prevention of atherothrombotic episodes of individuals with acute coronary syndromes and atrial fibrillation

Chromosomes may be knotted

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted. However, up to now it has not been possible to study this experimentally. Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now found that chromosomes may indeed be knotted.

Dartmouth to debut wearables that warn and wow at UIST 2017

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
A smart watch that takes the user to another dimension and a smart ring that provides powerful feedback are among the top technology Dartmouth College will bring to the 30th ACM User Interface Software and Technology Symposium (UIST 2017).

'Antelope perfume' keeps flies away from cows

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
In Africa, tsetse flies transfer the sleeping sickness also to cattle. The damage is estimated to be about 4.6 billion US dollars each year. Prof. Dr. Christian Borgemeister from the Center for Development Research (ZEF) at the University of Bonn and his colleagues from Kenya and the UK have developed an innovative way of preventing the disease. Tsetse flies avoid waterbucks, a widespread antelope species in Africa. The scientists imitated the smell of these antelopes.

Fewer stillbirths at East African hospital following introduction of childbirth guidelines

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
In collaboration with the health staff at Zanzibar's main hospital, Danish researchers have developed and introduced a short guide on childbirth care. The booklet seems to have had a significant effect, according to new research from the University of Copenhagen. After the guidelines were introduced, the number of stillbirths at the hospital fell by 33 per cent. The study reveals an opportunity to customise clinical guidelines more effectively to low-income countries, according to the researchers.

How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defences by stealth mechanisms

EurekAlert! - Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study by Vetmeduni Vienna has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens.

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